Architectural Millwork – This term is somewhat loosely used in our industry, but refers in general to a company that produces casework, running trim and items such as nurse’s stations, cash wraps or other such items that require custom engineering and production. In most cases architectural millwork is associated with commercial applications, but it can also refer to high-end residential as well. In some cases, architectural millwork is also used in parallel with the term millwork.
Cabinets / Cabinetry – A company whose primary business is building boxes that can have a variety of arrangements and or options. This term can refer to either commercial or residential work.
Casework – A modular configuration of a box or boxes typically referred to in commercial applications. A stand alone cabinet would be an example of casework. In commercial application, several individual pieces of casework are aligned to make the proper configuration for an elevation, room, etc…
Cell-based Manufacturing – Is a term used in our industry that in general is a concept of cutting part from a sheet first utilizing a panel saw, edgebanding of the parts if necessary and finally machining cut to size parts at a point 2 point or machining center.
Custom Manufacturing – This is a term used very loosely and most manufactures other than stock builders consider themselves to be “custom”. In general it means that they are willing to produce items that are non standard. As an example, if a company allows its customer to order for example cabinets in a special size or configuration, it is considered custom. This can mean other things as well such as willingness to build fixtures, diewalls, etc…
Custom One Off – An item(s) that is job specific and likely never to be produced in that exact configuration again. An example would be a nurse’s station that has specific requirement for a hospital second floor where the curvature of the front of the nurses station follows the overhead soffit.
Fixture Manufactures – There are several types of fixture manufactures, but in general to our industry we thing of those who produce retail or point of purchase “POP” fixtures (ex. Clothing displays), restaurant fixtures (ex. Booth, salad bars), or display fixtures (ex. Trade show booths). In many cases, these fixtures are complex products made of many parts, but are often produced in reasonable quantity. For example a retail fixture manufacture might land an account with a chain retail store to produce a display for their jeans which would meant that at least one fixture would be required per store.
JIT(Just In Time) Manufacturing – JIT is a philosophy of continuous improvement in which non-value-added activities (or wastes) are identified and removed for the purposes of:
JIT has become somewhat bastardized in our industry, as many think of it as simply shorter lead times and having just the right quantity of any item available for processing as needed.
Kitchen Showrooms – A term used to describe a company that may or may not actually produce their own products. In many cases, kitchen showrooms are display rooms that present products from a variety of manufactures. Housewives frequently come to these type places to pick out their kitchens or showrooms. Often kitchen showrooms use software technology such as 20/20 and or others to create a visual presentations.
Lean Manufacturing – The so called “Toyota Way,” Lean is basically all about getting the right things, to the right place, at the right time, in the right quantity while minimizing waste and being flexible and open to change. Lean has become the latest industry buzzword for continuous improvement. In order to be highly competitive in today’s market often requires companies to constantly reexamine their processes in order to achieve the most cost effective results leading to a stronger bottom line and a more competitive edge. At the most basic levels, lean thinking would replace outdated, non-automated processes or items and to replace them with items such as software or CNC machines.
Millwork – Is generally related to the production of wood moldings or running trim, turnings, windows, stairs, entry doors and or other such products generally made up of solid wood stock.
Nested-based Manufacturing – The manufacturing process of full sheets on a flat tabled CNC router. It provides the ability to cut multiple parts to size, groove and drill in one operation. This technology has become highly popular in our industry, but is best suited for small lot production or the custom one-off manufactures. On average, companies who use this strategy of manufacturing consume less than 40 sheets per day, but in some cases, larger nested-based machines allow for automatic material loading / unloading and or pendulum processing which can increase productivity to 100 plus sheets per shift.
True 32 System – A production strategy referring to modular cabinets, founded by the Europeans where holes used for things such as adjustable shelves are on 32mm center-to-center. All CNC machines in the woodworking industry with drill packs have their drill heads on 32mm centers. In most cases, the same shelf holes also act as placement holes for items such as hinges and drawer slides. With the advent of CNC machines, this strategy is less talked about, because a CNC frankly doesn’t care, but many have designed their cabinet construction around this principle.
CAD/CAM – A piece of software that allows a user to import or define the geometry of a part and to select strategies or toolpaths in order to process the part on a CNC machine. More sophisticated CAM/CAM systems not only allow the import of multiple parts generally .DXF or .CSV files, but also can have automated strategies for processing of those parts. Any software that does not write direct g-code files to the controller of a CNC machine must use a CAD/CAM system.
CNC Router – A Computer Numerically Controlled machine that is able to perform functions such a drilling, grooving, and routing to an object, part or sheet of material. These machines operate on a general language called g-code. Programs may be written at the machine via the controller and or with a CAD/CAM if one is installed on the machine. Downloading of programs from the office is also possible and is generally considered the most automated method to deliver a large amount of data to the machine.
Controller – Also known as the “black box” of a CNC machine, this is the brains of the machine. Data fed to the controller teaches the machine how to move and perform operations. Most CNC machines require a controller, but a few in the market today are able to be simply fed data via Windows Operating System running in a multi-processing mode.
DXF – Data Exchange File is the most common industry term for output of any software, but especially from AutoCAD or generic CAD systems. It is basically a strategy of using different layers to describe a part or object. Consistent formatting of layers would allow an advanced CAD/CAM to recognize the geometry and or operations of a part or group of parts within a nest.
Edgebander – A machine that automatically applies edging material to a part and trims any overages. Edgebanding is used on most parts in a European or frameless method of construction, but used seldom in modular and full-length face frame strategies of production.
Flat Table Router – A CNC machine with a flat bed enabling parts and or sheets to be placed upon it for processing. Typically vacuum holds the parts in place while they are machined. Unless special fixtures and or pod are used, horizontal processing such as drilling and routing are not possible. These machines are also often referred to as machining centers, nested-based machines, and or routers.
Horizontal Boring Machine – A machine with a specific purpose that can either be CNC controlled or not. Many also insert dowels after drilling the part’s edge.
Machining Center – A term for a machine that has evolved over the last few years which can mean, router, point 2 point, flat table router or almost anything related to a CNC machine tool. Generally point 2 point manufactures use this term to get away from the name point 2 point in order to seem more robust.
Nest – A group of parts laid out on a sheet of material meant for separation by a CNC machine. There are two basic types of nests; 1) block nests that look at the rectangular geometry of a part no matter its shape and 2) true-shaped nests that are able to nest parts within parts and to account for the actual part geometry. Both are powerful strategies and depending upon the product or part mix, one or both strategies may be required.
Nested Based Machine – A CNC machine that has a flat table for placement of parts and or sheets that is generally used in a nested-based strategy. In most cases, sheets of material are placed on the bed and the CNC processes the parts and finally separates them for other processing and or assembly.
Optimizer – A software applications that takes into account a quantity of a single part or parts and determines the best method of stacking and organizing those parts in order to achieve the best possible results which is generally yield of material and or speed of cutting. More sophisticated optimizers also have the ability to grain match and generate parts labels. Optimization is associated with a panel saw and can be directly linked to CNC saws or offered as manual diagrams of cutting patterns.
Panel Saw – A term referring to a machine whose primary purpose is to cut parts from a sheet of material. Some are manual, but generally panel saw refers to a machine capable of running programs either created at the machine or downloaded from the office. Many are capable of cutting multiple sheets of material simultaneously when fed by an optimizer. In some cases, label printers are also attached and allow for real time part label printing at the saw as the beam executes a cut separating a part.
Point 2 Point – A CNC machine term that is not frequently used in the market today, but is generally a machine with pods to hold part vacuums and rails to move sets of pods around to accommodate the geometry of a part. Generally only single parts are processed at one time on these machines and in most cases the strategy is to work in a pendulum (back and forth) fashion meaning that while one part is being loaded on one side, another single part is being loaded on the other side of the machine. A point 2 point machine can also access the edge of a single part for operations such as horizontal boring or routing because parts are held by vacuum on small pods that can be placed in a position to avoid interference with the CNC.
Post Processor – A machine specific strategy for creating g-code that enables a CNC machine to operate. Other names include post and toolfile. Every machine requires a post processor because it deals with all machine specific options that might include, size, head configuration, controller type and a number of other variables making a CNC machine specific.
Toolpath – A method of matching processes such as drilling, grooving and routing to a layered .DXF or .CSV file. In semi-automated processes, this is done by assigning a CAD layer to a tool that will be used to complete or aid in an operation on a part or nest of parts. Automatic toolpathing is achieved with some CAD/CAM systems without user intervention. In simple terms is the path of a tool.
Vertical Saw – Generally a non-CNC saw that allows the user to place a sheet vertically and move the saw blade through the stationary part. This kind of equipment is generally used in very small non automated operations, but is sometimes used in conjunction with CNC machines.
Architectural submittals – Detailed Drawing complete with Plan, Elevation, Cross Sections, Clips and Written information needed to bid a construction job or secure a contract with General Contractor, Home Owner, or Architectural / Engineering Firm. Many of our customer’s are required to submit architectural drawings for approval prior to starting manufacturing.
Barcode Reading / Scanning – The ability to read and pass detailed manufacturing information such as g-code file name and folder location, inventory allocations and locations, via Radio Frequency or Hardwire to single / multiple machine centers or modems. A barcode in itself is a windows true type font, typically barcode 3 of 9. Often barcodes are placed on part and or product labels for such information retrieval.
Batch Processing – Combining of multiple work orders to create efficiencies within the manufacturing process. Widely used in a cell based environment. Cell Based Manufacturing (the combining of different machines to process raw materials into finished products, i.e. panel saws, Pt to Pt machines, and edgebanders). This term might also mean batching a portion of more than one job together in order to gain production efficiencies.
Capacity Planning – The combination of existing orders, planned orders, and/or forecast to create a future demand on equipment, processes, manpower, material and cash flow. Capacity planning often helps define temporary and or permanent bottlenecks or constraints.
Cutlisting – This is a term used by many manufactures which is simply either a report that shows all of the cut parts required separated by material or is also referred to as a process to manually calculating the part sizes of a job and or product.
Estimation – Combining of Raw Material, Labor, and Overhead values to generate cost of products within a potential job. Generally used in the bid process when trying to secure a contract. Most company bid or estimate far more projects than they are awarded. Drawings are usually not done at this time except in kitchen design.
Field Verification – Onsite measurements to approve or create designs and / or drawings before manufacturing of products. Sometimes templates and / or rough lines drawing are created at the work site and brought back to the design departments. Most custom shops, especially those in the commercial market, not only verify dimensions of where their products will be installed, but also need to alter the products size to accommodate for as-built conditions.
G-code generation – To create binary language and pass the information to various CNC machines, enabling the manufacturing processes such as saw, route, drill, etc. to take place automatically. G-code as a term runs all CNC machines, but the format and actual language of the code varies from controller to controller and in most cases even machine to machine. A machine specific post is the term for the final language of the g-code.
Inventory Control – The location and tracking of raw material and buyouts through the manufacturing process. This information is used to generate reorder, job costing, scrap reports, etc.
Job Costing – the applying of cost, (Material, Labor, Overhead) to a project during and after the manufacturing process. Often compared to the project estimation in order establish true profit margins.
Material procurement reports – A report showing all the main items needed or a production run that typically includes sheet stock, solid stock, hardware, edgebanding, and other buy out items based upon what is produced in-house verses purchased.
Nesting – A term in conjunction with a CNC and is used to describe Nested Based Manufacturing which is defined by combining two or more manufacturing applications into one. As it applies to our industry it’s the combining of Sawing, Routing, and Boring of wooded parts. Another term that is used interchangeable with Nesting is Flat Table Machining. This has become the most popular technique for automated produces in our industry over the last few years, and is definitely the most efficient form of manufacturing for those producing less than 40 sheets of material per day.
Optimization – The sorting of manufactured parts by materials and arranging those parts in cut patterns to create the optimum material usage. Good optimization can also allow for stacking of multiple sheets of material in order to gain the most productivity. A parts list sorted by materials is fed into the optimizer and the results are typically output to a NC panel saw. The most common name for this file type if CPOUT, but many saws require direct links or posts.
Parts Labeling – Identification of parts by description, product, and job, usually to be used in the sorting of parts for assembly of products and work order tracking. Bar Coding is used when you want to pass that information through electronic data processing. Typical items on parts labels include job name, material, cut size, finished size with edgebanding, edgebanding instructions, routing information, barcode of program name, item number of job, however most labels can be user defined for the specific information they want for each part. Generally these labels are fairly small and are simply stuck to the parts temporarily and then removed at assembly. Parts are generally either labeled at the panel saw or the nested-based CNC.
Product Labels – Identification of assembled items by product type, job and / or contract. Often used in job tracking, cost analysis, and shipping. Bar Coding is used when you want to pass that information through electronic data processing. An example use for a product label would be identification of a product once it arrives on the job site so that the installer knows where it belongs.
Rendering – Converting 3D wire drawings into solid format often includes color, grain patterns, and shading. This is a hot topic for those in the residential markets, but seldom to commercial applications care about this capability. A photo realistic representation of the job is often helpful for the consumer to make a decision about a kitchen, bathroom, etc…
Scheduling – The establishing of a flow through the manufacturing process by product, job priority, machine availability, and completion dates. This is often plotted out on magnetic boards by Flow or Gant Charts.
Shop drawings – Drawings of products or projects complete with the needed design information to allow the manufacturing process to be preformed and monitored on the factory floor. Usually contains material callouts, multiple views, hole diameters and locations, route depths and radii, assembly instructions, etc.
Shop Floor Data Collection – Collecting of labor hours, material usage and location, scrap, etc. through the manufacturing process and applying it to Accounting procedures to perform payroll, job costing, material requisitions and purchases functions. Usually collected by manual handwritten job cards, or through electronic data collection such as RF devices and modem terminals on the shop floor.
Toolpathing – to create specific tool selection and instructions in binary language such as axis direction, feed speeds, and bit rotations, and pass that information to CNC machining centers.
Direct Labor – A term referring to the labor required that is actually adding value or performing operations on a part, product, or job. Direct labor is generally considered to be a profit center. In non CNC shops, the average sales to direct laborer is under $100,000, but in well managed CNC equipped operations, sales to direct labor can be over $200,000.
Indirect Labor – A term referring to the labor or personnel required in a company that doesn’t perform a function that is tangible. An indirect labor would be in many cases considered office staff or a guy sweeping the floor. For most companies, the objective is to keep indirect labor at a minimum because it is considered to be a cost of doing business rather than a profit center.
Overhead – A term meaning the cost of labor, equipment, buildings and other such items that are generally a fixed cost to the business and must be considered when estimating a price for producing a job.
CAD – Stands for Computer Aided Drafting or Computer Aided Design, and refers to software that enables a user to replace his drafting table with a computer screen. Drawing a line at a time is not much faster than on paper, but the copy and editing features speed up drafting considerably. AutoCAD is the de-facto standard against which all others are measured.
CAM – Stands for Computer Aided Machining or Computer Aided Manufacturing. In the early years these programs may have been not much more than a text editor, but all of today’s major software have drawing capabilities, and the term CAD/CAM could apply also. They have the ability to draw a single part, assign tooling, either manually or automatically, and turn it into machine instructions. Some have nesting capability, usually as an add-on package. Most have the ability to import a drawing, usually in DXF format.
Classroom Training – This means basic instruction for new users held in a small classroom at one of the authorized training centers around the country. Usually 3 companies max. can attend one session. It’s a 4 day course, and the base price allows 2 people from the same company to attend.
CNC – Stands for Computer Numeric Control. In the early years of automation, machines were simply Numeric Controlled. A series of letter codes, such as G, M, T, followed by a number or two, were used to give a machine a specific instruction, i.e. move the ½” router bit 12in in the x direction and 16in. in the y. The operators would feed these codes to the machine 1 at a time. Then punched paper tapes were used to feed the instruction lines to the machine. Now a computer, (but not necessarily a PC) stores and doles them out to the machine.
DXF – Stands for Drawing eXchange Format. Although there are several different flavors, this was intended to be a standard file format that allows different CAD or CAM program to exchange drawings. This is the most common method for sending a drawing from AutoCAD to a CAM program. As AutoCAD has evolved so has the DXF format, so some older CAM programs cannot read DXF files created with current AutoCAD.
Elevations – A drafting nomenclature for what you see on a wall or product if standing and directly facing it. A Front Elevation reflects what would be seen if standing in front. A Left Side Elevation reflects what would be seen standing to the left and so on.
Grain Matching – A term used in custom woodworking that is sometimes required (AWI premium grade spec) so that the doors or panels appear to be cut out of the same veneer or wood grained material as if they were arranged right next to one other.. An example cabinet would appear like all the doors and drawer fronts on the face of a cabinet would appear to cut out of the same piece of veneer, with only the lines between them breaking the surface.
Job Shop – As differentiated from a production shop; generally produces products for a specific job, not for inventory. It can also be used interchangeably with a custom shop. Often, job shops produce custom one off items that will likely never be reproduced.
Labels On Demand – A system of both hardware and software for printing part labels one at a time or a group at a time on the shop floor near the cutting equipment, either a CNC router or saw. The saw could be manual or CNC. The part label provides information as to what product the part goes to, how it is finished, how it is machined, sometimes with a bar code, etc. The hardware includes a printer, usually of the thermal transfer type to stand up to the rigors of the shop floor environment, and a standard computer networked to the office, sometimes in a dust free enclosure. Often a touch screen monitor is used to facilitate the label printing function. On the label printing computer, the machine operator loads an identical cutting pattern or nest to what he currently cutting. An image appears on the screen showing that same pattern with all the parts outlined and identified. As he is ready to remove a part from the machine he touches the screen on the appropriate part he wants a label for, thus generating a Label On Demand.
Office Labels – Accomplishes the same function as Labels on Demand, except the part labels are printed in a batch in the office and carried out to the cutting equipment. They are usually sorted and grouped to match the cutting patterns, nests or the order of the cutlist.
Onsite Training – As compared to Classroom Training, the authorized trainer travels to the user’s site, rather than the users traveling to the classroom. It offers a more customized basic training class as only 1 company is being trained, but unless there are more than 2 users to be trained, it is considerably more expensive. This is also the format for Advanced Training.
Plan View – As opposed to Elevation View, it is a drawing of a room or project as seen from the top looking down also referred to as a bird’s eye view.
Project Management – As the name implies, the process of managing a project. A firm may have multiple individuals doing this function, and each individual may be responsible for multiple projects. The duties almost always include job site coordination with the General Contractor and other trades, preparing change orders and other documents, preparing submittals and samples, preparing information for billing, obtaining color selections, etc. The Project Manager works very closely with the Production Manager to coordinate completion and delivery times. In some firms the Project Manager may also do some or all of the following: estimating, shop drawings, bill of materials, material ordering, work order preparation, CNC programming, and field measuring. Other companies have dedicated people to accomplish these functions.
Real-Time Labels – Restricted to CNC saws, this is similar to Labels on Demand, but the labels are printed automatically when the part is cut. Although Ardis offers this feature as an add-on, the software and hardware are usually furnished by the saw manufacturer and operate on the saw controller.
Sections – Shop drawing terminology which refers to a drawing of the interior of room or project as if part of it were removed. The removed portion is always a perfectly straight plane parallel to the exterior. There are 4 major types. A Plan Section is a view from the top down similar to a Plan View, but with a portion sliced away. An Elevation Section is similar to an Elevation View, but with a portion sliced away. A Cross Section is a view from the side, either left or right, once again with a portion sliced away. The Cross Section is the most commonly used and many are present in almost all submittal drawings. The last is a Detail Section which is simply a blowup of a small area of another section. It could be of a Plan, Elevation, or Cross Section.
Templating – When having to build a project to fit perfectly to an area of a job site, frequently our customers will make a full size model, or template, first. This is done at the jobsite, and may be of plywood, paper, cardboard, strips of wood making just the borders, or special foam templating material. This is a time consuming, manual process, and usually requires a lot of trial and error. Then this template, which may be quite large, must be transported back to the shop, sometimes in pieces, and reassembled on the floor or a large table. If a CNC machine is to be used in the production process, this template then has to be measured and drawn in a CAD or CAM program. This too, is a time consuming, manual process, and usually requires a lot of trial and error. It is usually not done on simple rectangular spaces, but only when odd angles or curves are involved. Tools such as the LT55 Laser Templator cut the time required for making the template from hours to a few minutes, eliminate transportation headaches, and eliminate the redrawing process.
Model Space – AutoCAD terminology for the main environment for creating a drawing, or model on the screen. The model can be 2D or 3D.
Paper Space – AutoCAD terminology for the environment to manage what printed pages will look like. It includes tools to open, size, and arrange several different Model Space views on the same page. These Model Space views can be of the same project or of different ones. Also available is a 2d drawing environment which works as a transparent overlay to the Model Space views. Most title blocks and page borders are drawn or inserted in this Paper Space environment.
View Ports – AutoCAD terminology for the individual Model Space view in the Paper Space environment. For example, if you want a new Model Space view on a Paper Space page, you make a new View Port.
Edgebanding – Material placed on the edge of a part or counter top, a wide range of material can be placed on the edge such as real hardwood lumber, strips of plastic laminate, rolls of PVC tape and more.
European or Frameless – Frameless, or European-style cabinets, have no front frame. The doors are attached directly to the sides of the cabinet. Frameless cabinets, which are more contemporary in style, offer the advantage of completely unobstructed access to the cabinet interior because there is no front frame. Frameless construction utilizes pin and dowel construction, blind dado, Confirmat construction. Euro and frameless are really the same thing. Euro is the majority of commercial work and growing in the residential market.
Face Frame – The traditional framed cabinet has a front frame around the cabinet opening to which the door is attached. These are the most popular type of cabinets in the U.S. residential market. Framed cabinets are available in Traditional ½ overlay doors, Full Overlay where the door and drawer front cover most of the frame as well as inset doors where the door is inset flush with a small reveal around the opening. Framed construction utilizes glue, staple, dado and dowel or screw construction.
Fluted Column – A groove (or channel) used decoratively as along the length of a column. There are usually several such flutes running parallel the length of the board.
High Pressure Laminate – Many old guys refer to this as Formica but that is a brand of HPL, HPL is the 1/16 laminate that is glued to the Particle board substrate for many counter tops. Wilson Art, Nevmar and Formica are major manufactures of HPL
Inset Doors – Cabinet doors that are set in side the opening of a cabinet instead of set on top and over lay the opening
MDF & Particle Board – An engineered wood offering an extremely tight and smooth surface. Exceptionally stable, MDF is favored for laminating with thermo-foils and melamine. Created form sawdust and glue.
MDF Doors – The good face and edge machining characteristics of MDF make it an excellent choice for painted cabinet products. MDF Doors are nothing more than a slab of MDF machined on a router to look like a more like a more expensive raised panel door. If the doors are going to be painted the MDF is great inexpensive option.
Melamine – This is a very thin material used on cabinet shelves, drawer and doors surfaces to cover the substrate of either particleboard or MDF. Many confuse Melamine with High Pressure Laminate but HPL is not only thicker but much more durable.
Modular Face Frame – A Face frame is attached to each box as a separate unit. When multiple boxes are placed together to create an elevation the boxes are then tied together by screws or other means look like one cabinet.
Mullins – In architecture, a slender, upright intermediate member that subdivides an opening, as a division between panes of a window or between adjacent windows. Although the mullion occurs in some form in nearly all architectural styles, Also referred to as an intermediate stile places between the end stiles
Overlay Doors – Overlay is the amount of front frame covered by the door and drawer. The exposed front frame is referred to as the “reveal.” The reveal on Traditional Overlay cabinets is typically 1 inch.
Rafix Fasteners – Type of connection for RTA office and residential cabinetry, Bolt and cam lock, but do not require any horizontal machining unlike cam and connecting bolts.
Scribes – Used in face frame to refer to the amount the face frame over hangs the cabinet box, This scribe can be trimmed on the job site to fit the wall, In Euro construction they use a separate piece of wood called filler on the end of the box to accomplish the same task.
Solid Stock – Solid Lumber (real wood from the trees) bought usually in random widths and lengths priced by the board foot. Examples would be oak, cherry, maple, etc…
Stiles, Rails, Flat and Raised Panels – Refers to face frame as well as flat and raised panel doors, Stiles are the end pieces running vertically, Rails are the top and bottom of the frame running horizontal. Flat panel are referred to ¼ plywood panels in the door frame and flush and raised panels would generally be hardwood (solid wood) panels in a door frame that are flush or raised above the surface of the styles and rails. Intermediate stiles and rails are common in multiple panel doors and cabinet openings.
Toe Kicks – Apply to only cabinets sitting on the floor. Shops have the option to build the toe kick attached or detached, Many Euro shops build a long detached toe kick box around 4 inched in height for the cabinet boxes to sit on and recessed around 3 inched from the front of the cabinet. Face frame cabinets usually notch 4×3 cut out for the toe kick on the cabinet ends allowing the cabinet end to sit on the floor.
True 32 System – Building Euro cabinets on 32 mm increments in all dimensions not just using the 32 mm line boring for placing hinges and drawer slides. Most Us shops build Euro boxes where the size of the cabinet is English dimensions but utilizes 32 mm line boring.
Valance – A board running horizontally between two cabinets on each side of a window or opening. That only covers the top of the cabinet as well as the support system, styles include , arched valance and valance solid or raised panel.
Veneer – A veneer is a thin piece (1/32 of an inch) of solid wood which is attached with glue to a substrate (usually “particleboard” in raised panel doors and “hardboard” in flat or recessed panel doors). Veneered components are more uniform in finish and grain consistency. Veneered center panels in doors provide stability by minimizing its shrinking and expansion in dry and moist climates thereby eliminating cracking and splitting.